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The Role of Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah Pesantren in the Political Socialisation of the Umat

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21 Oktober 2018 23:28 WIB
Dibaca: 427
Penulis : Nathan John Franklin

 

 

Reproducing Political Islam in Java: The Role of Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah Pesantren in the Political Socialisation of the Umat

 

Nathan John Franklin

 

Abstract This thesis contributes to the scholarly understanding of Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) and Muhammadiyah and the role these Muslim organisations perform in the political socialisation of Islam through their affiliated pesantren (Islamic boarding schools). The study has a regional focus, concentrating on two case studies, both in Lamongan, East Java; Pesantren Sunan Drajat represents the NU pesantren system, and Pesantren Karangasem portraying the Muhammadiyah version of pesantren. Bourdieu’s concepts regarding habitus, field, symbolic capital, symbolic power, and symbolic violence are used to examine the pesantren system and the way it reproduces socio-religious identity through the values that santri (students) acquire. Moreover, this study looks at how pesantren and their kyai (headmasters) have influenced the political culture of the umat (religious community). Participant observation provided a detailed insight into the pesantren system, which was complemented with empirical data from election results and a survey to assess the voting habits of Lamongan residents.

 

The development of political Islam in Lamongan is tied to the history of Islam and the strong pesantren culture in the district. This resulted in the popularity of the Islamic political parties and parties that promote Muslim identity, including Masyumi and the NU party at the 1955 general election; the United Development Party (Partai Persatuan Pembangunan, PPP) during the Suharto regime (1966-1998); and the National Awakening Party (Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa, PKB) and National Mandate Party (Partai Amanat Nasional, PAN) in the postSuharto era. Pesantren Sunan Drajat educates its santri to be obedient, and its headmaster demands the community faithful follow his guidance in supporting political candidates that defend the interests of NU. Pesantren Karangasem on the other hand teaches its santri to think critically, but the school’s educators encourage their followers to support cadres that represent the Muhammadiyah constituency. Although people consider the opinions of their local kyai, people are not subservient to their political instructions. Despite this, NU and Muhammadiyah identity remains a salient influence on voters in Lamongan. However, political disunity among NU figures has increased the electoral appeal of the Muhammadiyah candidates, particularly in elections for district head (pemilihan kepala daerah, Pilkada).

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Chapter One:

Introduction 2

Background 4

 Pesantren 8

The Arrival of Islam and the Emergence of Islamic Movements 10

The Socialisation Process of Islam 16

Political Islam 17

Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama 20

Methodology: Approach to the Study 21

Literature Review 24

Chapter Outline 30

 

Chapter Two:

Pesantren Pedagogy and the Inculcation of a ‘Santri Habitus’ 34

Field and Habitus 37

Cultural Capital and Symbolic Violence 40

Reproduction 45

Comparing French Elite Schools and Javanese Pesantren 48

Kyai and Symbolic Violence 50

Summary of the Theory 54

 

 

Chapter Three:

Political Islam 57

Islam and Muslim Identity 60

Islam and the Indonesian Republic 61

Non-state Actors and State Actors in Political Islam 63

Growing Islamisation 68

Profile of Major Political Parties Post-Suharto 70

Political Islam and the Pesantren System 75

Kyai in Muslim Politics 78

Summary: Democracy and Islam 81

 

Chapter Four:

History and Profile of Lamongan 87

An Overview of Lamongan 87

Paciran Subdistrict 90

Economic Overview 91

Early Modern Period and Islamisation of Lamongan 95

Sunan Drajat and His Legacy 103

Dutch Occupation of Lamongan 106

From Japanese Invasion to Independence 109

Conclusion 110

 

Chapter Five:

Islamic Movements and Politics in Lamongan 113

NU and Muhammadiyah and their Impact on the Community 113

NU in Lamongan 115

NU and Local Politics 118 Muhammadiyah in Lamongan 123

Islamic Defenders’ Front 129

Conclusion: Lamongan in the Twenty First Century 132

 

Chapter Six:

The Case Study of Pesantren Sunan Drajat 135

Overview 136

Santri Numbers 137

Kyai Maftukan 140

Kyai Abdul Ghofur 141

Average Day of Santri at Pesantren Sunan Drajat 143

Pengajian 146

The Morning Pengajian 146

Visitors and Guests 147

Abdul Ghofur: A Traditionalist Kyai 148

Traditionalism 152

The Relationship with the Local Community and Government 155

Business Interests 157

Radio Station 158

Agribusiness 159

Sunan Drajat Legacy 160

Village Pengajian 161

Conclusion 162

 

Chapter Seven:

Pesantren Sunan Drajat and Political Islam 165

History of Political Involvement 167

Views on Politics 170

Post-Suharto Politics 174

Kyai Ghofur and Gerindra 179

Pilkada Elections 184

Survey Data from Pesantren Sunan Drajat 193

The 2008 Gubernatorial Election 196

Conclusion 198

 

Chapter Eight:

The Case Study of Pesantren Karangasem 203

Pesantren Karangasem 206

The Pesantren Karangasem Complex 208

Kyai Abdurrahman Syamsuri 210

Joining Muhammadiyah 214

The Pesantren Karangasem Family 215

Muhammadiyah Leader 216

The Split 219 Pembaruan at Pesantren Karangasem 223

Definition of Education 229

Educational Curriculum 230

Muhammadiyah Influence 232

Halaqah Studies 233

Foreign Languages 234

Kyai Mu'rob and Pengajian 235

Average Day of Santri at Pesantren Karangasem 237

Kemuhammadiyahan 241

Conclusion 242

 

Chapter Nine:

Pesantren Karangasem and Political Islam 245

Development of Political Islam 249

Impact of Reformasi and Amien Rais 253

Party Politics 258

Islamic Political Aspirations 261

Survey Data from Pesantren Karangasem 265

Political Compromise 268

Provincial and National Elections 269

Lamongan Pilkada 270

FPI and Links to JI 275

Conclusion 280

 

Chapter Ten: 

Conclusion 286

 

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Tags: ReproducingPoliticalIslaminJavaTheRoleofNahdlatulUlamaandMuhammadiyahPesantreninthePoliticalSocialisationoftheUmat , NathanJohnFranklin

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